A Beginner's Guide to Hacking and Penetration Testing

Ethical Hacking

At its core, ethical hacking is about getting into computer systems, networks, and applications legally and responsibly in order to find weaknesses. Consider it the work of a digital detective, in which ethical hackers employ their expertise to defeat cybercriminals. Instead of taking advantage of their skills for bad, they employ them to improve cybersecurity.

Penetration testing functions similarly to a security assessment for computer systems and networks. It assists in identifying and correcting problems before attackers can take advantage of them. It protects your digital assets by simulating real-world threats, lowering the chance of hacking and financial losses. 
In this blog, you will learn what exactly penetration testing is,why it is used in ethical hacking, and take a dive into the types and tools of penetration testing. Let’s Start,

What Is Penetration Testing?

Penetration testing, known as “pen testing,” is a proactive and approved security assessment approach used to analyse the security of computer systems, networks, apps, and other digital assets. Penetration testing’s primary purpose is to detect flaws and gaps in a system’s security defences before malicious attackers may exploit them.

Why is Penetration Testing Used?

Penetration testing is used to verify Identifying Vulnerabilities, Risk Assessment, Security Improvement, Compliance Requirements, Security Validation, Incident Response Preparation, Protection of Sensitive Data.

Here are some of the ways that penetration testing can help organisations:

  • The test identifies defects in an organisation’s hardware, software, or human resources in order to develop controls.
  • The test ensures that the three most critical areas of cybersecurity are not compromised. These three factors are confidentiality, honesty, and accessibility.
  • The test ensures that the controls in place are effective.
  • The test gives information about a company’s existing security measures. This happens by determining how it will be attacked and the procedures required to secure it.
  • The test improves the overall security posture of a firm.

Types of Penetration Testing

Black Box Penetration Testing

 A type of security testing in which the testers have no prior knowledge or information about the target system, network, or application being tested is known as black box penetration testing. It is intended to imitate a real-world scenario in which an attacker has little or no insider knowledge and attempts to break into a system without knowing anything about its structure, configuration, or weaknesses.

Grey Box Penetration Testing

Grey box penetration testing is a type of security testing that lies somewhere between black box and white box testing. Grey box testing involves penetration testers having just some knowledge of the target system, network, or application being evaluated. This means they have access to some insider information but not the entire system’s architecture, source code, or settings.

White Box Penetration Testing

White box penetration testing, also known as clear box or glass box testing, is a security assessment technique in which penetration testers have complete information of the target system, network, or application under examination. This deep knowledge includes in-depth knowledge of the system’s structure, source code, configuration settings, and other internal workings. White box testing varies from black box testing, in which testers have no prior knowledge of the target, and grey box testing, in which testers have some prior information.

External Testing

External network penetration testing,  known as external testing, is a type of security assessment that focuses on the security of an organisation’s external-facing systems, networks, and assets. External attackers, such as hackers and malicious actors on the internet, are simulated in this sort of testing as seeking to breach an organisation’s perimeter and get unauthorised access to its systems or data.

Internal Testing

Internal network penetration testing, also known as internal network testing, is a type of security assessment that focuses on analysing the security of an organisation’s internal network, systems, and assets from the inside. This sort of testing replicates attacks that could come from the organisation’s trusted network, such as employees, contractors, or other authorised persons. The purpose is to detect vulnerabilities, weaknesses and potential dangers that insiders or attackers who have obtained an advantage within the internal network could use.

Web Application Testing:

Web application testing, often known as web app penetration testing or web security testing, is a type of security assessment that focuses on the security of web applications. Web apps are software programmes that operate in web browsers and perform a variety of functions, including online banking, e-commerce, social media, and others. Web apps are popular targets for cyberattacks due to their common usage and the confidential information they handle.

Tools Used in Penetration Testing


Metasploit is a widely-used open-source penetration testing framework and exploitation toolset that helps security professionals and ethical hackers identify vulnerabilities, perform penetration tests, and assess the security of computer systems, networks, and applications. Developed and maintained by Rapid7, Metasploit has become a standard tool in the field of cybersecurity and is utilized by both security experts and novices to assess and enhance the security posture of organizations.


Nmap, which stands for “Network Mapper,” is a powerful and extensively used open-source network scanning and discovery application. Nmap is a network exploration and security auditing tool created and maintained by Gordon Lyon (commonly known as Fyodor). It is a powerful tool that administrators, security professionals, and ethical hackers may use to acquire information about networked devices, locate open ports, and uncover potential weaknesses in the network.

Burp Suite

Burp Suite is a famous online application security testing tool for testing web application security. Burp Suite, created by PortSwigger Web Security, is widely used by security professionals, penetration testers, and ethical hackers to identify security holes and vulnerabilities in web applications, APIs, and websites. It provides a full array of tools for both manual and automated web application testing. 


Wireshark is an open-source packet analysis programme that is widely used for network solving problems, analysis, protocol development, and network security assessments. It is well-known for its adaptability and the ability to gather and analyse network data in real time. Wireshark, which was created by a group of volunteers and is maintained by the Wireshark development community, is available for a variety of systems, including Windows, macOS, and Linux.


“SQLMap,” is a popular open-source penetration testing tool used by security professionals, ethical hackers, and penetration testers to automate the detection and exploitation of SQL injection problems in online applications and databases. SQL injection is a common and serious security problem that happens when an attacker manipulates SQL queries executed by an application, potentially resulting in unauthorised access, data theft, or data change.

Conclusion :

We’ve started reading the beginner’s guide to hacking and penetration testing. We’ve discovered that penetration testing is an essential component of ethical hacking, assisting us in identifying weaknesses and securing our digital world. We’ve prepared ourselves for cybersecurity difficulties by investigating its various forms and tools.

 Remember that ethical hacking is about building our defences and staying one step ahead of future research threats, not only identifying problems. As you continue on your cybersecurity path, keep a feeling of duty and a dedication to protecting the digital domain in mind.

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