Interview questions on manual testing for freshers

This post contains numerous important manual testing interview questions and software testing interview questions to boost your confidence before an important interview. Get useful ideas and tips for improving your skills and making a successful career in manual testing.

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Testing the functionality or features of software applications according to customer requirements through human efforts is called Manual Testing.

1. What is Software Testing?

Testing the functionality or features of software applications according to customer requirements through human efforts as well as by writing Automation scripts on some Automation tools like Selenium and QTP is called Software Testing.

2. What is Component testing?

Testing the components of a Software application thoroughly and rigorously is called Component testing.

3. What is integration testing?

Testing the data flow between 2 to 3 modules of a Software Application is called Integration testing.

4. What is System testing?

System testing is an end to end testing where the testing server is similar to a production server.

5. What is acceptance testing?

Testing the end to end scenario based on the customer real time business workflow is called Acceptance Testing. In acceptance testing, the customer will check whatever requirements he wants are present in the software application or not. The other name of this testing is also called user acceptance testing.

6. What is beta testing?

Beta testing is one type of acceptance testing where we test an application in the beta environment before the release is made. Beta testing is just like a production environment without real traffic.

7. What is a beta release?

Beta release of software applications is done by companies before final release into the market where the customers will get a glimpse of the software application and give the feedback about the functionality of application and based on that feedback the software companies make changes in the software application before releasing finally into the market. It is also one type of acceptance testing.

8. What are release notes?

Release notes are documents that are given to the customer along with software applications at the end of the sprint or project. Release notes are prepared by product managers, developers and testers.

Release notes consists of

  1. Overview of the software application.
  2. procedure for how to install the software.
  3. procedure for how to uninstall the software.
  4. What are the bug fixes done
  5. What are the bugs we are releasing with software
  6. What are the features we are giving
  7. what are the features deleted.
  8. Software version id.
  9. Release Date of software application.
9. What is Retesting?

Retesting is done by the tester to check if the bug which was raised by him and assigned to the developer is fixed by the developer or not.

10. Difference between T.S and T.C?
Test Scenarios      Test Cases
Derived from Requirements  Derived from Test Scenarios
High Level Document  Low Level Document
Test Scenarios tell what to test Test Cases tell how to test
By looking into test scenarios it will be difficult to test the application By looking into test cases it will be easy to test the application.
11. Explain to me the test case review process.

The people involved in the test case review process can be Senior Tester, Lead Tester, Junior Tester and QA Manager.

The steps involved in test case review process are as follows:
  • Testers write test scenarios and test cases and send to reviewer
  • Reviewer after finding the mistakes comment on the mistakes and send back the test scenarios and test cases  to tester
  • Testers then correct the mistakes based on comments received from reviewer and send the test document again to reviewer
  • Reviewers on finding the necessary corrections made by the tester send the document to the approver.
  • The approver after receiving the document from the reviewer approves the document and sends it to the tester.
  • The tester finally starts the test cases execution after getting approved by the approver and the approver is a QA Manager.
12. What is the Difference between Positive and Negative testing ?
Positive  Testing Negative Testing
Positive Testing is done  according to requirement Negative Testing is not done according to requirement 
With only Positive Testing Test  Case coverage will not be good Negative testing along with Positive Testing make a good test coverage
Positive Testing is done first Negative testing is done later after Positive Testing.
13. Explain me test case template

Test Case Template is a document which contains all the details involved in testing each and every functionalities of software application.

The contents of Test Case Template are
  1. Test Case ID- It is a number assigned to each functionality of the application which will undergo testing.
  2. Test Scenario-Refers to the names of the functionalities of the application which is to be tested.
  3. Pre-Condition- Refers to the condition which is necessary for successful testing of functionality of software application. 
  4. Steps to Reproduce- Refers to the step by step procedure involved in testing each functionality of a software application.
  5. Expected Behaviour- Refers to how the software application should behave.
  6. Actual Behaviour- Refers to how a software application is actually behaving.
  7. Result – Refers to the combined outcome of expected behaviour and actual behaviour. Result is called Passed if expected behaviour and actual behaviour are same and Result is called failed if expected behaviour and actual behaviour are different. 
  8. Bug ID- Number assigned to a bug is Bug ID. Bug  is raised by the tester when the tester finds a difference between expected and actual behaviour.
  9. Comments- Refer to any statement.
  10. Automated- Refers to whether the functionality is ready for automation testing.
14. What is Black box testing?

Testing functionality or behaviour of software applications without looking at code is black box testing. It is done by testers.

15. What is Bug Leakage?

Any Bug that gets leaked into the production from the testing environment unintentionally is called bug leakage. The Bugs that get leaked into production are of high priority as well as low priority. Low priority bugs can be fixed in the upcoming sprint but high priority bugs have to be fixed in the current sprint using HotFix.

16. What is Bug Release?

Any Bug that gets intentionally released into the production is called Bug Release. The Bugs which get released into the production are always of lowest priority since fixing every bug within the sprint is not possible.

17. What is HotFix?

Any Bug that gets leaked into the production and in case it is of high priority and high Severity, then the company will have to immediately fix it . This quick fixing of bugs is called HotFix. HotFix is done in about 1 or 2 hours or maximum one day. The reason it is done is so that the customer does not move over to the competitor companies. The whole process is called HotFix.

18. What is the main aim of a tester?

The main aim of testers7 is to check whether the software application is working as per customer requirement by testing every functionality of the application and checking of the bugs present in it so that a very good quality of software application can be handed over to the customer.

19. What is test execution?

Test execution means finding out the actual behaviour of a software application by practically executing steps to reproduce or steps to run the software application .

20. What is purpose of doing testing

The purpose of doing testing is to check whether the software application is working as per customer requirement by testing every functionality of the application and checking of the bugs present in it so that a very good quality of software application can be handed over to the customer.

21. What is defect,bug,error,failure?

 Meaning of Defect Difference between expected and actual behaviour of software application is called defect which is  found by developer in development environment.

Meaning of Bugs –  Difference between expected and actual behaviour of software application is called bugs which are found by testers in the testing environment. 

Meaning of Error Error is the coding mistake done by a developer while doing white box testing.

Meaning of Failure – Failure happens in the production environment when the actual behaviour is not the same as expected behaviour. Failure also means bug leakage.

22. When you see a minor defect will you release the software?

No , because there is also a high possibility that the minor defect can also affect the customer’s real time business workflow. Since it is not possible to give a 100 percent defect free software to the customer, software which customer gets has some minor defects along with it and this coming up of minor defects along with software at time of release is called bug release. So the company after knowing about those defects from customers will try to fix the defects so that in the next version or release of the application it will not be present.

23. What is formal testing?

Formal testing refers to the kind of testing where we document everything like test scenarios,test cases, test plan,traceability matrix etc.

24. What is built?

Build refers to the compressed and compiled form of  software code.

25. What is a patch?

Patch is a piece of  new code which will replace the existing code with the new correct code.

26. What is test Data?

Data which is required to test the functionality of software applications is test data.

27. What is Release?

Release refers to the last phase of the software development lifecycle where the  software application is being  given to the customer.

28. Principles of software testing
The principles of software testing are:
  •   We should test the software application at an early stage.
  •   We should not do exhaustive testing.
  •   We should always do context based testing.
  •   We should avoid the Pesticide Paradox.
  •   We should ensure defect clustering does not take place.
  •   It is not possible to give 100 percent error free software to customers.
  •   Absence of error fallacy.  
29. What is Adhoc testing?

Testing the software application randomly without looking into the requirements is called Adhoc testing.


Finally, understanding manual testing interview questions is an essential component for freshers going to succeed in the ever-changing field of software development. With these insights, you’ll be able to handle interviews while showing your expertise and talents. Remember that ongoing learning and practice are essential not just for landing a job but also for excelling and progressing in your manual testing profession. Best wishes for your success in the field of manual testing!

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